Research

The Labor Department’s Harwood Grant Program Should Be Eliminated

, Author

By Richard McCarty and Don Todd

Executive Summary

Every year, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) at the U.S. Department of Labor awards grants to unions and union-affiliated organizations through the Susan Harwood Training Grant Program. Although the Harwood grant program is supposed to train and educate “workers and employers on workplace safety and health hazards, responsibilities and rights,” it is little more than a union giveaway program. Due to the chronically low number of trainees, the dubious training quality, the unwillingness of wealthy grantees to assist with funding their own training programs, the ample availability of safety training, and amount of federal resources needed to manage the program, Congress should honor the Trump Administration’s request and eliminate the Harwood grant program.

In spite of all of the advantages that many Harwood grantees have, including years of experience dealing with safety hazards, training, and government grants, they regularly fail to meet their own goals. Some grantees boast in their applications about the number of union members they have, the number of employees at friendly companies or institutions who “need” training, or the extent of their shop steward network; yet, time after time, they request a contract extension to allow more time to meet their goals. What makes this situation even more perplexing is that trainees are sometimes even paid by their employers to attend training and that goals are often modest, such as training a few hundred people over the course of a year.

Training provided by the Harwood grant program seems unremarkable. Many of the training sessions are short, lasting just 30 to 60 minutes, and much of the training is also provided by trainees who may only have a small amount of formal training on a topic. Additionally, the information taught at these training sessions is largely from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), OSHA, or other OSHA grantees; sometimes grantees even apply for another grant to train on a topic they have previously covered.

Harwood grants are often awarded to connected, multi-million dollar organizations, yet these grantees typically contribute little or no money to fund their own training programs. Furthermore, there does not appear to be any effort to seek funding from state or local governments or charitable foundations to help cover the cost of these training programs. Nonetheless, grantees tend to receive grant, after grant, after grant. While grantees contribute little or nothing to funding these training programs, grantees or affiliated organizations often spend large sums of money on political expenditures and lobbying.

Instead of committing to help fund their own training programs, grantees routinely request funding for employees’ health insurance and pensions; some even seek money for rent and utilities. In addition, as the grant applications show, some grantees are requesting taxpayer funds to subsidize the six-figure salaries and benefits of their executives.

Safety training is, and should be, easily accessible. There are many sources of training, such as colleges, trade associations, state governments, and the U.S. Department of Labor. A large amount of safety training programs are available online. Furthermore, businesses should take responsibility for training their own employees. With recent tax and regulatory cuts, businesses should be better able to afford to pay for training that meets the exact needs of their employees. Additionally, unions should be knowledgeable about the safety hazards facing their industries or professions and should gladly offer safety training to their members or to potential members.

Managing the Harwood grant program requires a lot of government resources. For example, OSHA holds orientation meetings for grantees, conducts on-site financial reviews, and conducts field observation of training classes. In one case, an OSHA employee, who had scheduled a training observation meeting, emailed the grantee to ask, “Are you sure about the two hour Susan Harwood Grant Training on Machinery and Machine Guarding for workers at Eii Inc?” [1] The OSHA employee also included text from the Eii Inc. website which stated that the company had received the OSHA Star Voluntary Protection Programs Award, which recognizes “excellence in occupational safety and health protection.”

For all these reasons, Congress should eliminate the Harwood grant program. Failing that, Congress should further restrict the grants, including requiring matching non-federal investment in these training programs. If the training these grantees provide is truly needed, then they should either be able to provide significant funding themselves or find a foundation or a wealthy donor willing to contribute.

Overview

Background

The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation awarded a grant to fund the initial phase of the Ending Union Patronage Project by the Americans for Limited Government Foundation (ALGF). To research U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) grants to unions and union-affiliated organizations, ALGF requested documents on over 90 grants. To date, ALGF has received documents relating to 46 grants. ALGF reviewed documents associated with fifteen of these grants: two of the grants went to the District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund; one went to the Graphic Communications Conference; one went to the LIUNA Training and Education Fund; one went to the New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency; two went to the Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United; one went to the SEIU Education and Support Fund; and seven went to the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California. All of the reviewed grants were part of the Susan Harwood Training Grant Program and were applied for between 2011 and 2018.

Harwood Grants

The Labor Department’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) runs the Susan Harwood Training Grant Program, which, according to the OSHA website, provides “training and education for workers and employers on workplace safety and health hazards, responsibilities and rights. Target audiences include underserved, low-literacy, and high-hazard industry workers and employers.”[2] For the past several years, OSHA has been awarding $10.5 million in Harwood grants each year.[3] Many of these grants go to unions or union-affiliated organizations even though only 6.4%[4] of the private sector workforce is unionized. In the FY 2020 budget request, the Labor Department has requested that this program be eliminated.[5]

Grantees Often Struggle to Meet Their Own Goals

In spite of all of the advantages that many of these grantees have, including years of experience dealing with safety hazards, training, and government grants, they regularly fail to meet their goals. Some grantees boast in their applications about the number of union members they have, the number of employees at friendly companies or institutions who “need” training, or the extent of their shop steward network; yet, time after time, they request a time extension to get the job done. What makes this situation even more perplexing is that trainees are sometimes even paid by their employers to attend training, and goals are often modest, such as training a few hundred people over the course of a year (and a large portion of that training may be provided by contractors or worker-trainers.)

Training Seems Unimpressive

Training provided by this grant program seems unremarkable. Many of the training sessions are short lasting just 30 to 60 minutes, and much of the training is also provided by trainees who may only have a small amount of formal training on a topic. Additionally, the information taught at these training sessions is largely from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), OSHA, or other OSHA grantees; sometimes grantees even apply for another grant to train on a topic they have previously covered.

Little Non-Federal Money Invested

Harwood grants are often awarded to connected, multi-million dollar organizations, yet these grantees typically contribute little or no money to fund their own training programs. Furthermore, there does not appear to be any effort to seek funding from state or local governments or charitable foundations to help cover the cost of these training programs. Nonetheless, grantees tend to receive grant, after grant, after grant. While grantees contribute little or nothing to funding their training programs, grantees or affiliated organizations often find large sums of money to spend on political expenditures and lobbying.

Grantees Seek Funding for Overhead

Instead of committing to help fund their own training programs, grantees routinely request funding for employees’ health insurance and pensions; some even seek money for rent and utilities. In at least one case, a grantee sought money for a new computer. Of course, grantees also regularly request funds to subsidize generous salaries for senior employees at the organizations. In fact, as the grant applications show, some grantees are requesting taxpayer funds to subsidize the six-figure salaries and benefits of their executives. In 2011, the Graphic Communications Conference requested funds to pay three employees daily rates between $664 and $799.[6] These rates did include benefits; but assuming a five-day workweek for 50 weeks a year, the employees’ total annual compensation ranged from $166,000 to $199,750. In 2014, the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California requested funds to pay a portion of the $102,000 salary of its project director; additional funds were sought for benefits.[7] In 2017, the LIUNA Training and Education Fund requested funds to pay a portion of the salaries and benefits of five employees with six-figure salaries: the executive director, the administrator, the project director, the information technology manager, and the accounting manager.[8] Their salaries ranged from a little over $102,000 to $187,000; these figures do not include benefits, which ranged from over $72,000 to over $132,000.

Alternatives to Harwood Grant-Funded Training

Safety training is, and should be, easily accessible. First of all, businesses should take responsibility for training their own employees. With recent tax and regulatory cuts, businesses should be better able to afford to pay for training. Secondly, unions should be knowledgeable about safety hazards facing their industries or professions and should gladly offer safety training to their members or to potential members. Finally, there are many sources of training, such as community colleges, trade associations, state governments, and OSHA itself. Of course, much training is available online.

Grant Process and Monitoring

Most of the FOIA responses only included the grant application; but, of the reviewed grants for which correspondence was supplied, it appears that the Labor Department has a number of requirements in place to help prevent taxpayer funds from being wasted and to help ensure that grant funds are being spent effectively. For instance, administrative costs must not exceed 25% of the grant. Quarterly reports are to be submitted detailing expenditures and grantees’ progress toward meeting their project’s goals. Included in these reports are sign-in sheets from training classes. Evaluations by, or feedback from, trainees is also required.

From the reviewed correspondence, it seems the Labor Department has a lot of work to do to manage the Harwood grants and that it does at least a reasonable job of monitoring the grants. For example, OSHA holds orientation meetings for grantees, conducts on-site financial reviews, and conducts field observation of training classes. Both the financial reviews and the field observations require OSHA to write reports. Training materials must be reviewed and approved; proposed budgets must also be approved, as well as any grant agreement amendments, such as 90-day extensions.

In one case, an OSHA employee questioned a training session. [9] The employee, who had scheduled a training observation meeting, emailed the grantee to ask, “Are you sure about the two hour Susan Harwood Grant Training on Machinery and Machine Guarding for workers at Eii Inc?” The OSHA employee listed the mission of the Harwood grant program including that it “addresses unmet training needs of an identified target population and issues encountered by the targeted audience in obtaining occupational safety and health training.” The OSHA employee also included text from the Eii Inc. website which stated that the company had received the OSHA Star Voluntary Protection Programs Award, which recognizes “excellence in occupational safety and health protection.”

Taxpayer Funds Assisting with Union Organizing?

With these trainings, unions or union-affiliated organizations can acquire contact information from thousands of workers; this information can easily be used to recruit union members. Is it appropriate for taxpayer dollars to be used to subsidize programs which might assist labor organizations with recruitment?

Recommendation: End Harwood Grants

For all these reasons, Congress should eliminate the Harwood grant program as the Labor Department has requested. Failing that, Congress should further restrict the grants, including requiring a matching investment in these training programs. If the training these grantees provide is truly needed, then they should either be able to provide some funding themselves or find a foundation or donor willing to contribute.

Reviewed Grants

In the following pages, are summaries of the reviewed grants and background information about the grantees as well as grant budget highlights, OSHA actions, and grant results.

District 1199C Training & Upgrading Fund Grant for 2016-2017

Grant Summary

In June of 2016, the District 1199C Training & Upgrading Fund, which is affiliated with the National Union of Hospital and Healthcare Employees, AFSCME, applied for a Susan Harwood grant to develop or revise training programs and use them to train workers on Safe Patient Lifting, OSHA Rights and How to Use Them, and Healthcare Worker Safety and to provide technical assistance to healthcare workers and employers on occupational safety.[10] The grantee planned to provide, directly or indirectly, 1,500 hours of training to 900 people –20 healthcare manager/supervisor trainers, 30 adult and young peer trainers, and 850 adult and young workers. The trainings were to range from 30 minutes to 5 1/2 hours. The target audience was 10,000 District 1199C members in southeast Pennsylvania and 600 workers and job seekers at the District 1199C Training & Upgrading Fund Learning Center. Several representatives of large employers signed a letter in support of the grant. Presumably, these large employers could afford to provide their own safety training.

Grantee’s Finances & Capacity

According to its grant application, the Fund is affiliated with District 1199C of the National Union of Hospital and Healthcare Employees, an American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) union which represents 10,000 members in southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey. On their most recent Form 990, the Fund reported that they had annual revenue of more than $9.5 million in revenue and that they had had 67 employees.[11] AFSCME made political contributions of over $13.3 million during the 2018 election cycle and spent over $2.2 million on lobbying.[12]

Grant Budget Highlights

The grantee requested $165,000 in federal funds and did not plan to contribute to the training program or to secure funds from other sources.[13] The proposed budget included over $62,000 to cover the costs of fringe benefits. The projected cost per student was $183.33; and the projected cost per training hour was $110.

OSHA Actions

No reports or correspondence were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2017-2018

Grant Summary

In August of 2017, the District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund applied for a Susan Harwood grant.[14] The purpose of the grant was to train Pennsylvania healthcare workers on chemical hazards. The Training Fund projected that 1,240 people would be trained – 1,220 workers and 20 employers. Training classes were to be in English and last for one hour.

Grant Budget Highlights

The Training Fund requested $155,000 in federal funds for this training program, but it did not plan to invest any of its own money in the program or to secure funds from other sources.[15] In its proposed grant budget, the Fund included fringe benefits that cost over 75% of its employees’ salaries while they worked on this grant. These fringe benefits cost nearly $59,000 and included generous health and pension plans. The projected cost per trainee was $125; and the projected cost per contact hour was $125.

OSHA Actions

OSHA took a number of steps to oversee the grant.[16] In January of 2018, OSHA reviewed the Training Fund’s training materials and found them to be “technically accurate.” In April, an OSHA representative made a training observation visit and wrote a report. In mid-June of 2018, an OSHA representative conducted an onsite monitoring visit and wrote a report. The report states that, “Marketing strategies seem to be effective” even though the Fund was falling short of the number of workers it had planned to train by nearly 35%. In early June, an OSHA representative conducted a financial on-site review and wrote a report. OSHA caught a $350 mistake in the books – training charges from the previous year had been incorrectly been charged to the grant. There were no findings or recommendations.

Grantee Performance

The Training Fund’s performance was lackluster.[17] The grantee barely surpassed its overall trainee goal and fell short of reaching their adult and young worker goals. At least seven classes exceeded the class size limit the Fund had set. In their grant application, the grantee promised to “provide all completed reports and forms in a timely manner.” Quarterly reports were filed by the grantee, but it appears that several were weeks or months late. The Training Fund promised to post the training material online for three years, but it does not appear to be there.[18]

Graphic Communications Conference Grant for 2011-2012

Grant Summary

In July of 2011, the Graphic Communications Conference (GCC), an affiliate of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, applied for a Harwood grant to train 705 people on amputation hazards.[19] The grantee planned to train 20 GCC worker-trainers for 40 hours and support them. The grantee also planned to mentor 20 part-time GCC worker trainers. Working in pairs, worker-trainers were to conduct two workshops, for a total of 20.

The grantee planned to train 250 workers, supervisors, and managers on Systems of Safety Awareness in ten to fifteen trainings; they were to be trained for four to eight hours. The grantee planned to train 125 workers, supervisors, and managers on Systems of Safety Amputation Hazards Awareness in five trainings; they were to be trained for four to eight hours. The grantee planned to train 240 GCC rank-and-file leaders at four regional union conferences; they were to be trained for one to two hours on Hazards of Amputation or Systems of Safety Awareness. The grantee also planned to contact 50 people for a needs assessment survey.

Grantee’s Finances and Capacity

In its grant application, the GCC claimed that it had between 51 and 100 employees and that their budget was between $1 million and $4,999,999.[20] The GCC also claimed to represent over 51,000 workers and have 8,100 shop stewards.

The GCC is part of the Teamsters. During the 2012 election cycle, the Teamsters made political contributions of over $4.5 million, spent over $900,000 on outside spending, and spent over $1.7 million on lobbying in 2012 alone.[21]

Grant Budget Highlights

The grantee requested $200,000 in federal funds but did not plan to invest any of its own money in the program or to secure funds from other sources.[22] Included in the proposed grant budget were $2,500 for “rent and utilities,” $556 for “telephone,” and fringe benefit costs that equaled 60% of the salaries of employees for the time they spent working on the grant. The projected cost per trainee was $284.

OSHA Actions

No reports or correspondence were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

LIUNA Training and Education Fund Grant for 2017-2018

Grant Summary

In August of 2017, the LIUNA Training and Education Fund applied for a Harwood grant to train workers on work zone safety/traffic control and flagger safety.[23] The Fund planned to conduct 58 six to eight hour work zone safety/traffic control courses and 149 four-hour flagger safety courses. It was expected that the sessions would have an average of ten trainees. The grantee projected that 2,070 workers would be trained for a total of 9,920 hours. Workers were to be trained in seven states.

Grantee’s Finances and Capacity

The Fund is affiliated with the Laborers’ International Union of North America. The grantee claimed that there were more than 20,000 LIUNA apprentices.[24] In 2016, the Fund had 25 employees and revenue of nearly $12.2 million; it ended the year with well over $15.2 million in assets.[25] LIUNA is even larger and wealthier: it had 436 employees and revenues of over $82.5 million in 2016; at the end of that year, it had nearly $202 million in net assets. Furthermore, LIUNA’s political action committee made political contributions of over $6.9 million[26] and spent over $160,000 on outside spending during the 2016 election cycle.[27]

Grant Budget Highlights

The grantee requested $123,926 in federal funds, but it did not plan to contribute financially to the training program or to secure funds from other sources.[28] The budget included money to subsidize several six-figure salaries and the cost of fringe benefits that equaled 71% of employees’ salaries for the time they spent working on the grant. The projected cost per trainee was $59.82; the projected cost per training hour was $12.49.

OSHA Actions

No reports or correspondence were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, Inc. Grant for 2017-2018

Grant Summary

The New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency applied for a Susan Harwood grant to train workers on machinery and machine guarding hazards in general industry to prevent amputations.[29] The grantee planned to provide a total of 1,390 hours of training to 610 workers and employers in manufacturing, retail, and small businesses in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Some training was to be in Spanish.

Grantee’s Finances and Capacity

The New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, a 501(c)(3) organization, had 3 employees and over $100,000 in revenue in 2016; at the end of that year, it had net assets of more than $700,000.[30] The New Jersey State AFL-CIO had 13 employees and revenue of more than $1.8 million; it also had over $7.7 million in net assets at the end of the year.[31] The AFL-CIO contributed over $4.1 million in the last election cycle, spent over $3.6 million on outside spending during the last cycle, and spent over $4.5 million on lobbying last year alone.[32]

Grant Budget Highlights

The New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency requested $154,844 in federal funds but did not plan to contribute any money to this training program or to secure funds from other sources.[33] Included in the budget were fringe benefits that cost over 29% of the salaries of employees working on the grant. The projected training cost per person was $254 with a projected per hour cost of $111.

OSHA Actions

OSHA appears to have provided careful oversight of this grant.[34] The agency carefully reviewed the grantee’s training materials and noted that a PowerPoint presentation wasn’t sufficiently accessible for disabled people, that some of the information provided might be too technical for the target audience, and that a statement in the proposed training material related to deadlines for whistleblower complaints was inaccurate. When asked, an OSHA employee explained that fees for cancelling plane tickets could not be reimbursed by the government because the tickets were purchased before the grant period began.

OSHA also questioned a training session the grantee had scheduled at a company pointing out that that company had received OSHA‘s highest award. In December of 2017, just before a scheduled training observation meeting, an OSHA employee emailed the grantee and asked, “Are you sure about the two hour Susan Harwood Grant Training on Machinery and Machine Guarding for workers at Eii Inc?” The OSHA employee pointed out that the Harwood grant program “addresses unmet training needs of an identified target population and issues encountered by the targeted audience in obtaining occupational safety and health training.” The OSHA employee also included the following text from the Eii Inc. website:

The U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA, created the VPP [Voluntary Protection Programs] to recognize and encourage excellence in occupational safety and health protection. It is their highest award given. Eii Inc. received the Star VPP awards with regard to their safety. Eii Inc. is the only electrical contractor in the State of New Jersey approved by OSHA to be part of the VPP program.…

Over the course of the grant, OSHA wrote three reports on it and may have written more afterward. In December of 2017, an OSHA representative made a Program Monitoring Visit and wrote a report. In that report, there was one finding that the grantee’s training program used training materials that had not been approved by OSHA. The same month, OSHA made a training observation visit and wrote a report. It was noted that some slides that were included in a PowerPoint presentation to trainees were not submitted for review and that some training materials shown were not submitted for review. In the third quarter of the grant, the OSHA grants administrator conducted an initial financial and administrative review. There were two required corrective actions. The grantee had undercharged the government for allowable grant expenses and needed to be paid. Administrative costs were above 25% and would need to be monitored so that they did not exceed 25% of the total allowable expenses over the course of the grant.

Grantee Performance

The grantee’s performance was lackluster.[35] In the third quarter, the grantee requested a 90-day extension, which was approved, to give it time to hit its goals; the grantee had also received a 90-day extension on its previous Harwood grant. The grantee submitted five quarterly reports. After missing its trainee goals in the first two quarters, it finally hit its trainee goals in the last three quarters. Oddly, the fifth quarter report does not mention the number of training hours provided, which raises the question of whether the training may have been rushed to meet the trainee goal. Previously, all four quarterly reports had listed the number of hours of training provided. The grantee also struggled to meet its goals for its previous Harwood grant; in the fifth quarter of that grant, the grantee expected to fall short of its trainee goal.

Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2016-2017

Grant Summary

In June of 2016, the Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United (PJB/WU), which is affiliated with the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), applied for a Susan Harwood grant to train 453 people on heat illness prevention and ergonomic hazards.[36] The grantee planned to train three trainers for six hours and provide three hours of training to 450 industrial laundry workers. Training was to be in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese. There were to be 30 training sessions.

Grantee’s Finances and Capacity

In 2016, the PJB/WU had 53 employees and revenue of over $1.6 million; at the end of that year, it had net assets of over $2.3 million.[37]

Grant Budget Highlights

The PJB/WU requested $93,015 in federal funding. [38] It did not plan to contribute its own money to the training program, nor did it plan to secure funding from other sources. The proposed budget included fringe benefits that cost 31.5% of the project director’s salary for the time spent working on the grant. The projected cost per trainee was $205.33; and the projected cost per training hour was $67.99.

OSHA Actions

No reports or correspondence were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

The performance of the PJB/WU was unimpressive.[39] In its application, the grantee claimed to represent more than 1,400 industrial laundry workers in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The union also bragged about its “dedicated shop steward structure” with “representatives from each department, each shift, and each language group” and claimed that it “will make dissemination of materials and recruitment for training run smoothly.” The quarterly reports were not included in the FOIA response, but the union did feel the need to amend the grant agreement twice to add another 90 days and to expand to two more states – Maryland and Delaware. Presumably, it would not have requested those amendments, first in July of 2018 and then again in December of 2018, if the program had been doing well.

Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2017-2018

Grant Summary

In August of 2017, the Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United, an SEIU affiliate, applied for a Susan Harwood grant to train workers on chemical hazards in manufacturing and industrial laundries.[40] The PJB/WU planned to train 310 people: 10 trainers and 300 workers. The trainers, who were servicing representatives for the union, were to be trained for six hours, and the workers were to be trained for two hours. Training was to be offered in both English and Spanish. To help recruit trainees, the union planned to offer incentives like raffles and food.

Grant Budget Highlights

The PJB/WU requested $76,897 in federal funds for this training program, and it did not plan to contribute money to the program or to secure funds from other sources.[41] In its proposed grant budget, the union included fringe benefits that cost 31.5% of its employees’ salaries while they worked on this grant. The projected cost per trainee was $248; and the projected cost per contact hour was $117.

OSHA Actions

OSHA appears to have done an adequate job of overseeing this grant.[42] In February, the agency reviewed the training module and found it “technically accurate.” In June, an OSHA representative conducted a financial on-site review and wrote a report. The report noted that the grantee had put an expenditure in the wrong category in the initial budget, but there were no findings or recommendations. In August, an OSHA representative made a training observation visit. The report noted problems with humidity and distractions in the meeting room and noted that no small group exercises were done. There was one finding related to the inadequacy of the meeting space for the training. In the fourth quarter of the grant, a program monitoring meeting took place, and an OSHA representative wrote a report noting no problems other than the fact that the PJB/WU was far behind in terms of the number of people it had trained through the third quarter.

Grantee Performance

The performance of the PJB/WU was disappointing.[43] The grantee struggled to meet its goal and requested a 90-day extension. This occurred in spite of its claim that it represented over 1,575 people in the fields that it was looking to train, which is more than three times its trainee goal. The union also boasted in its application about its organization of laundries and factories making “dissemination of materials and recruitment for training run smoothly.” Nonetheless, over the course of a year, the union trained just 138 people — less than half of the number of people it was supposed to train. Part of the reason for the union’s difficulty meeting its goals was that it was late on fulfilling its previous Harwood grant and did not start work on this grant until the 2nd quarter. The 5th quarter report was not included in the FOIA response so it is possible that the union finally met its goals, but that seems unlikely.

Although the PJB/WU promised in its application that it would “provide all completed reports and forms in a timely manner,” it also had difficulty submitting its quarterly reports on time; several of these were late by weeks or even months. Perhaps if the union spent a little more time working on its grants and little less time on endorsing Democrats (38 last year alone), it might be able to submit its reports in a timely fashion and achieve its modest goals.[44]

In addition to the issue of the quantity of people trained, the records raise questions about the quality of the training. For example, both of the union’s train-the-trainer classes were less than half of the length they were supposed to be – just two or two and a half hours as opposed to the six hours that were planned. Furthermore, at least two of the union’s training sessions were far larger than the class size range mentioned in the application. One of those sessions had 42 trainees, and the other had 67. In its application, the union had planned to train 15 to 20 people per session. Combined, those two sessions account for more than two-thirds of the people trained over the course of the first twelve months of the grant.

SEIU Education and Support Fund Grant for 2017-2018

Grant Summary

In August of 2017, the SEIU Education and Support Fund submitted an application for a Susan Harwood grant to train workers on chemical hazards/hazard communication in general industry.[45] The Fund planned to train 12 people at a 3-day train-the-trainer class. These trainers were to then train 4,000 workers for two hours at 200 classes. Workers were to be trained in English, Spanish, Russian, and Chinese. These trainings were targeted at workers in four states: New York, Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri. To accomplish the goals laid out in its grant application, the Fund planned to partner with SEIU locals with 485,000 members.

Grantee’s Finances & Capacity

While the Fund only brought in $214,000 in 2016, it is affiliated with SEIU.[46] SEIU had 677 employees in 2016 and revenue of $287.2 million.[47] In the 2018 election cycle, SEIU made political contributions of over $22.2 million and spent over $3.1 million on outside spending; additionally, SEIU spent over $500,000 on lobbying last year.[48]

Grant Budget Highlights

The Fund requested $154,030 in federal funds for this training program.[49] The grantee planned to make in-kind contributions including paying the deputy chief financial officer and an accounting employee for the time spent working on the program; covering travel costs for the project director; and covering the costs of postage/photocopying, telephone/fax, cellphones, rent, and meeting and conference space. For the four employees whose salaries were to be subsidized by taxpayers, the Fund requested money for fringe benefits that equaled 40% of their salaries. The projected cost per trainee was $38.51, and the projected cost per contact hour was $19.25.

OSHA Actions

OSHA appears to have done an adequate job of overseeing this grant.[50] In January of 2018, the agency reviewed the training module prepared by the Fund and found it “technically accurate.” In May of 2018, an OSHA representative made a training observation visit and found that standards were met. In the early part of June, an OSHA representative conducted an off-site review and found the books in order. There were no findings or recommendations. In late June, an OSHA representative conducted a program monitoring meeting and wrote a report. The report recommended that the grantee improve some of its program evaluations.

Grantee Performance

The Fund’s performance was inadequate.[51] The grantee fell well short of its goal to train 4,000 workers. Although the final closeout report from the grantee was not included in the FOIA response, it appears that fewer than 2,300 workers were actually trained. This failure occurred in spite of the fact that the Fund included in its grant application copies of letters from over a dozen employers and organizations who claimed that they were interested in the grantee’s training and that they had over 15,000 workers who needed the training. Of course, the letters from the employers and organizations were all form letters.

State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2011-2012

Grant Summary

In July of 2011, the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California (SBCTC), affiliated with the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, applied for a Harwood grant to train workers on ergonomics in construction and to continue to develop its safety “Hub” on its website.[52] The ergonomics curriculum was an update of a class that it had taught in 2002. Including direct and indirect training, the grantee planned to train at least 1,095 people for at least 1,650 hours.

The SBCTC planned to train 45-75 trainers at three fifteen-hour train-the-trainer sessions. Combined, these trainers were expected to train 900-1,500 people for an average of 45 minutes. The grantee also planned to deliver six to eight hazard awareness seminars that were to last two to four hours. These seminars were to train 150-200 people in total and at least two of the seminars were to be in Spanish.

Grantee’s Finances and Capacity

Reported on its 2016 Form 990, that it had 13 employees in 2016, had revenue of over $6.5 million, had net assets of more than $8.4 million.[53] The AFL-CIO made contributions of over $4.1 million and spent over $3.6 million on outside spending in the last election cycle; last year alone, it spent over $4.5 million on lobbying.[54]

Grant Budget Highlights

The SBCTC requested $199,999 in federal funds and only planned to donate refreshments for the train-the-trainer sessions.[55] The proposed budget included $2,500 for a new computer, $3,840 for rent of 160 sq. ft. of space, $1,200 for “telephone/modem/ISP,” and fringe benefit costs equal to 38% of the salaries of the SBCTC employees for the time they spent working on the grant. The projected maximum cost per trainee was $182.65; the projected maximum cost per training hour was $121.21.

OSHA Actions

No reports or emails were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2012-2013

Grant Summary

In June of 2012, the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California applied for a Harwood grant to train workers on fall protection and other topics.[56] The target audience was unionized construction workers, contractors/employers and day laborers. The grantee planned to conduct three train-the-trainer sessions for fifteen hours training a total of 45-75 trainers. Each trainer was expected to train at least 20 people for an average of 45 minutes; altogether, they were supposed to train 900-1,500 people. The grantee also planned to deliver two to four hour seminars on safety at six to eight venues for 90-150 people; at least two of these were to be in Spanish. Training materials were to be posted to the SBCTC website.

Grant Budget Highlights

The SBCTC requested $175,750 in federal funds and only planned to donate the cost of refreshments for the train-the-trainer sessions.[57] The proposed budget included $3,961 for rent of 160 sq. ft. of space, $1,200 for “telephone/modem/ISP,” and fringe benefit costs equal to 32% of the salaries of the SBCTC employees for the time they spent working on the grant. The projected maximum cost per trainee was $169.81; and the projected maximum cost per training hour was $118.35.

OSHA Actions

No reports or emails were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

State Building and Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2013-2014

Grant Summary

In July of 2013, the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California applied for a Harwood grant to train workers on occupational health hazards and the hazard communication standard and to continue developing its online safety “Hub.”[58] The target audience was unionized construction workers, contractors/employers, and day laborers. Training materials were to be posted to the SBCTC website. Altogether, the grantee planned to train at least 1,020 people, directly or indirectly. The grantee planned to conduct three train-the-trainer sessions for fifteen hours each training 45-75 people in total. Each trainer was expected to train at least 20 people for an average of 45 minutes; combined, they were supposed to train 900-1,500 people. The grantee also planned to hold five to seven hazard awareness seminars for two to four hours reaching a total of 75-210 people. At least two of these seminars were to be in Spanish and the seminars were to cover not only occupational health hazard but also topics from previous years.

Grant Budget Highlights

The SBCTC requested $175,750 in federal funds and only planned to donate the cost of refreshments/meals at its train-the-trainer sessions.[59] The proposed budget included $3,962 for rent of 160 sq. ft. of space, $1,200 for “telephone/modem/ISP,” and fringe benefit costs equal to 32% of the salaries of the SBCTC employees for the time they spent working on the grant. The projected maximum cost per trainee was $172.30; and the projected maximum cost per training hour was $117.17.

OSHA Actions

No reports or emails were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2014-2015

Grant Summary

In July of 2014, the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California applied for a Susan Harwood grant to train workers on hearing loss prevention along with old topics that it had previously offered.[60] The target audience was unionized construction workers and contractors/employers and day laborers. The SBCTC planned to update a training curriculum it had created in 2003-2004 and to conduct three train-the-trainer sessions that were to last 7.5 hours for 45-75 people. These trainers were each expected to train at least 20 people for a total of 900-1,500 people; these trainings were expected to last for an average of 45 minutes. The SCTC also planned to hold three to five seminars on hearing loss prevention for 90 minutes to four hours (two in Spanish and one to three in English) for 45-125 people and to hold six to seven longer seminars on other safety topics for four to 7 1/2 hours for 90-175 people. Some training materials were to be translated into Spanish, and the OSHA-approved curricula and training resources were to be posted to its website.

Grant Budget Highlights

The SBCTC requested $175,750 in federal funds and only planned to donate the cost of refreshments/meals at the train-the-trainer sessions.[61] Included in the proposed grant budget was $3,962 for rent for 160 square feet, $1,200 for “telephone/modem/ISP,” and the cost of fringe benefits equal to 30% of the salaries of employees for the time they spent working on the grant. The maximum projected cost per trainee was $162.73; the maximum cost per training hour was $122.13.

OSHA Actions

No reports or emails were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2016-2017

Grant Summary

In June of 2016, the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California applied for a Susan Harwood grant to train a minimum of 990 people for a total of at least 1,717 hours on silica exposure hazards and prevention.[62] The target audience was 400,000 unionized construction workers and contractors/employers in California. The SBCTC planned to develop a new curriculum and train at least 45 trainers at three train-the-trainer sessions. Each of these two-day sessions were to last a total of 15 hours. Those trained at these sessions were expected to train at least 20 people each for 30-90 minutes. The grantee planned to observe four to six trainers conduct training sessions. The grantee also planned to conduct three to five 90-minute to four-hour training seminars on silica and other hazards for at least 45 people in English and Spanish. The curricula and training materials were to be posted to the SBCTC website.

Grant Budget Highlights

The SBCTC requested $165,000 in federal funds and only planned to donate the cost of refreshments/meals at train-the-trainer sessions.[63] Included in the proposed grant budget was $3,960 for rent for 160 square feet, $1,200 for “telephone/modem/ISP,” and the cost of fringe benefits equal to 30% of the salaries of employees for the time they spent working on the grant. The projected maximum cost per trainee was $166.67; the projected maximum cost per contact hour was $96.10.

OSHA Actions

No reports or emails were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2017-2018

Grant Summary

In August of 2017, the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California applied for a Susan Harwood grant to train 1,005 people on electrical hazards in the construction industry.[64] The target audience was the 400,000 unionized construction workers and contractors/employers in California, and day laborers in Northern California. The grant agreement was later amended to target a nationwide audience. The grantee planned to train at least 45 trainers for 15 hours; the grantee planned to hold three of these trainings. These trainers would then train at least 20 people for 30-120 minutes. The SBCTC also planned to observe four to six of the trainers conduct training. In addition, the grantee planned to hold several (four to six) 90-minute to 4-hour hazard awareness seminars on electrical hazards in construction for union members and day laborers and to keep building and promoting their safety “Hub” on the internet.

Grant Budget Highlights

The SBCTC requested $155,000 in federal funds and only planned to donate the cost of refreshments/meals for its train-the-trainer sessions.[65] Included in the proposed grant budget were fringe benefit costs that equaled 38% of the salaries of employees for the time they spent working on the grant. The proposed grant budget also included $600 for their website and $6,648 for rent, which is over $2,600 more than it requested for rent the year before. The projected cost per trainee was $154.23; the projected cost per training hour was $127.57.

OSHA Actions

No reports or correspondence were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

The SBCTC’s performance was unimpressive. Unfortunately, the FOIA response did not include quarterly reports, but it did include two amendments to the grant agreement. In August of 2018, the grantee requested two grant agreement modifications: the first to change the target audience from California to nationwide and the second to extend the grant for another 90 days.[66] The second document, which was written by the grantee, stated, “We are hopeful that we will meet the numbers on time, but don’t want to take any chances.”

State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2018-2019

Grant Summary

In August of 2018, the State Building & Construction Trades Council of California applied for a Harwood grant.[67] In the box on the grant application labelled “Descriptive Title of Applicant’s Project,” the SBCTC actually wrote, “Training California Construction Workers on Confined Space Hazards (or something).” The target audience was 400,000 unionized construction workers and contractors/employers in California, and possibly nationwide. The projected number to be trained was 1,053. The grantee planned to train 48 trainers for 15 hours over the course of two days at three training events. Each trainer was expected to train at least 20 people for 30 minutes to two hours. The grantee planned to train an additional 45 people directly at 3-5 seminars for 1-4 hours. The grantee also planned to attempt to visit 3-5 trainers and observe them conducting a training session. The curriculum and training materials were to be posted to the grantee’s website.

Grant Budget Highlights

The grantee requested $150,000 in federal funds and only planned to donate the cost of refreshments/meals at three train-the-trainer events.[68] Included in the proposed grant budget were $6,648 for work space usage and fringe benefit costs that equaled 30% of the salaries of employees for the time they spent working on the grant. The projected cost per trainee was $142.45; the projected cost per contact hour was $120.48.

OSHA Actions

No reports or correspondence were included in the FOIA response so OSHA actions are unknown.

Grantee Performance

No reports were included in the FOIA response, and it is unknown how the grantee performed.

Conclusion

Every year, the Department of Labor doles out taxpayer funds to Harwood training grant recipients. Grantees, many of whom are unions or have strong ties to them, use this money to fund salaries, generous benefits, and rent and utilities, among other things. Many of these grantees are nonprofits with multimillion-dollar budgets and significant assets; yet they typically do not contribute much to these training program budgets. To justify their grant expenses, grantees copy and paste from government websites to create training materials, then deliver training to several hundred workers or find others to do so. These training sessions often last just 30-60 minutes. Frequently, grantees fall short of their modest training goals and request an additional 90-day extension. Of course, managing this grant program is time-consuming for OSHA. Businesses and unions should both be providing training to workers without requiring taxpayer funds. For those businesses or unions that lack the ability to train workers, there are plenty of sources for safety training: community colleges, trade associations, state governments, and OSHA, among others. Some of this training can be readily found online. For these reasons, Congress should end the Harwood grant program as the Trump Administration has requested; or, at a bare minimum, it should significantly increase the restrictions on the program, including requiring matching non-federal investment in these training programs.

Richard McCarty is the Director of Research at Americans for Limited Government Foundation. Don Todd is Senior Fellow at Americans for Limited Government Foundation.

Appendix

Sample FOIA Request

October 10, 2018

Attn: FOIA Request

U.S. Department of Labor – OSHA
FOIA Officer
Rm. N3647
200 Constitution Ave., NW
Washington, D.C. 20210

Via email to: foiarequests@dol.gov

Re: Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Request

Dear FOIA Disclosure Officer:

Pursuant to the federal Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. § 552 et seq., I request on behalf of ALG copies of the federal records described below. Please provide any of the following documents that exist:

  1. the application for the 2017 Susan Harwood grant awarded to the SEIU Education and Support Fund;
  2. any correspondence between DOL and the grantee pertaining to the grant;
  3. any reports received by DOL from the grantee relating to the grant; and
  4. any DOL audits of the grant.

Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(6)(A), please advise Richard McCarty, whose contact information is listed below, within 20 days whether you will comply with this request and provide the documents.

I work for Americans for Limited Government and am not seeking this information for any commercial use. Disclosure of such information is in the public interest as it would likely contribute to public understanding of the operations or activities of the government. I therefore request that any fees associated with this request be waived in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(4)(A)(iii), or at least be limited in accordance with 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(4)(A)(ii)(II). I would also request that if you deny the fee waiver, that I be notified in advance.

To the extent that you deny any part of this request, please cite specific exemptions to FOIA that you believe justifies your denial. In addition, for any documents withheld by the agency, please provide a description containing the information that would be

required by Vaughn v. Rosen, 484 F.2d 820 (D.C. Cir. 1973), cert. denied, 415 U.S. 977 (1974).

Please send the requested records to the following address:

Richard McCarty
Director of Research
Americans for Limited Government
10332 Main Street, Box 326
Fairfax, VA 22030

If you have any questions regarding these FOIA requests, please contact Richard McCarty by email at rmccarty@getliberty.org.

Thank you in advance for your assistance.

Sincerely,

Richard Manning
President
Americans for Limited Government

Bibliography

Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Union Members Summary.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nr0.htm.

The Center for Responsive Politics. “AFL-CIO, Summary, Profile for 2018 Election Cycle.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000088.

The Center for Responsive Politics. “American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, Summary.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000061&cycle=2018.

The Center for Responsive Politics. “Laborers Union, Expenditures, 2016 cycle.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/expenditures.php?cycle=2016&cmte=C00007922.

The Center for Responsive Politics. “Laborers Union, Independent Expenditures, Communication Costs and Coordinated Expenses as of December 07, 2017.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/indexpend.php?cycle=2016&cmte=C00007922.

The Center for Responsive Politics. “Teamsters Union, Summary, Profile for 2012 Election Cycle.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000066&cycle=2012.

The Center for Responsive Politics. “Service Employees International Union, Summary, Profile for 2018 Election Cycle.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000077.

District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund. “Safety Classes Offered.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.1199ctraining.org/safety-classes.

Guidestar, “District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund 2016 Form 990.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2017/237/418/2017-237418594-0ef33603-9.pdf.

GuideStar, “LIUNA Training and Education Fund 2016 Form 990.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/237/042/2016-237042734-0e855a19-9.pdf.

GuideStar. “New Jersey State AFL-CIO 2016 Form 990.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/221/153/2016-221153990-0ece6842-9O.pdf.

GuideStar. “New Jersey State AFL-CIO Community Services Agency Inc. 2016 Form 990.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/223/142/2016-223142633-0ed0a3ed-9.pdf.

GuideStar. “Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United 2016 Form 990.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/230/971/2016-230971735-0eb2f33d-9O.pdf.

GuideStar. “Service Employees International Union 2016 Form 990.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/360/852/2016-360852885-0ec457b8-9O.pdf.

GuideStar. “SEIU Education and Support Fund 2016 Form 990.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/521/761/2016-521761037-0eab1243-9.pdf.

GuideStar. “State Building & Construction Trades Council of California 2016 Form 990,” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2017/940/896/2017-940896460-0e9df568-9O.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2016-2017 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/District-1199C-FY16.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/District-1199C-FY-17.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for Graphic Communication Conference Grant for 2011-2012 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY11-Graphic-Comm-Conf_IBT-10926722-no-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for LIUNA Training and Education Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-LIUNA-App12471340_R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, Inc. Grant for 2017-2018 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/NJ-AFL-CIO-Harwood-Grant-FY-17.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2016-2017 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY16-Philadelphia-PA-Joint-Board-12201700-yes_R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2017-2018 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-Philadelphia-Joint-Board-App12470798_R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for SEIU Education and Support Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/SEIU-FY-17.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2011-2012 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY11-SBCTCC-App10926981-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2012-2013 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY12-SBCTCC-App11171494-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2013-2014 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY13-SBCTCC-App11447507-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2014-2015 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY14-SBCTCC-App11700871-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2016-2017 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY16-SBCTCC-App12194305-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2017-2018 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-SBCTC-App12462601-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2017-2018 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-SBCTC-Mod-8-27-18-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2018-2019 Documents. Accessed May 17, 2019. https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY18-SBCTCC-App12699367-R.pdf.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. “Susan Harwood Training Grants.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.osha.gov/dte/sharwood/.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. “Susan Harwood Training Grant Program, Program Statistics.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.osha.gov/dte/sharwood/statistics.html.

Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United. “2018 Election Endorsements.” Accessed May 8, 2019. http://www.pjbworkersunited.org/2018-election.html.

U.S. Department of Labor. “FY 2020 Department of Labor Budget in Brief.” Accessed May 8, 2019. https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/general/budget/2020/FY2020BIB.pdf.

 

[1] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, Inc. Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/NJ-AFL-CIO-Harwood-Grant-FY-17.pdf.

[2] Occupational Safety and Health Administration, “Susan Harwood Training Grants,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.osha.gov/dte/sharwood/.

[3] OSHA, “Susan Harwood Training Grant Program, Program Statistics,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.osha.gov/dte/sharwood/statistics.html.

[4] Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nr0.htm.

[5] U.S. Department of Labor, “FY 2020 Department of Labor Budget in Brief,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/general/budget/2020/FY2020BIB.pdf.

[6] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Graphic Communication Conference Grant for 2011-2012 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY11-Graphic-Comm-Conf_IBT-10926722-no-R.pdf.

[7] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2014-2015 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY14-SBCTCC-App11700871-R.pdf.

[8] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for LIUNA Training and Education Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-LIUNA-App12471340_R.pdf.

[9] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, Inc. Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/NJ-AFL-CIO-Harwood-Grant-FY-17.pdf.

[10] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2016-2017 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/District-1199C-FY16.pdf.

[11] Guidestar, “District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund 2016 Form 990,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2017/237/418/2017-237418594-0ef33603-9.pdf.

[12] The Center for Responsive Politics, “American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, Summary,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000061&cycle=2018.

[13] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2016-2017 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/District-1199C-FY16.pdf

[14] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/District-1199C-FY-17.pdf.

[15] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/District-1199C-FY-17.pdf.

[16] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/District-1199C-FY-17.pdf.

[17] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/District-1199C-FY-17.pdf.

[18] District 1199C Training and Upgrading Fund, “Safety Classes Offered,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.1199ctraining.org/safety-classes.

[19] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Graphic Communication Conference Grant for 2011-2012 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY11-Graphic-Comm-Conf_IBT-10926722-no-R.pdf.

[20] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Graphic Communication Conference Grant for 2011-2012 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY11-Graphic-Comm-Conf_IBT-10926722-no-R.pdf.

[21] The Center for Responsive Politics, “Teamsters Union, Summary, Profile for 2012 Election Cycle,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000066&cycle=2012.

[22] OSHA FOIA Response, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY11-Graphic-Comm-Conf_IBT-10926722-no-R.pdf.

[23] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for LIUNA Training and Education Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-LIUNA-App12471340_R.pdf.

[24] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for LIUNA Training and Education Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-LIUNA-App12471340_R.pdf.

[25] GuideStar, “LIUNA Training and Education Fund 2016 Form 990,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/237/042/2016-237042734-0e855a19-9.pdf.

[26] The Center for Responsive Politics, “Laborers Union, Expenditures, 2016 cycle,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/expenditures.php?cycle=2016&cmte=C00007922.

[27] The Center for Responsive Politics, “Laborers Union, Independent Expenditures, Communication Costs and Coordinated Expenses as of December 07, 2017,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/indexpend.php?cycle=2016&cmte=C00007922.

[28] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for LIUNA Training and Education Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-LIUNA-App12471340_R.pdf.

[29] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, Inc. Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/NJ-AFL-CIO-Harwood-Grant-FY-17.pdf.

[30] GuideStar, “New Jersey State AFL-CIO Community Services Agency Inc. 2016 Form 990,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/223/142/2016-223142633-0ed0a3ed-9.pdf.

[31] GuideStar, “New Jersey State AFL-CIO 2016 Form 990,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/221/153/2016-221153990-0ece6842-9O.pdf.

[32] The Center for Responsive Politics, “AFL-CIO, Summary, Profile for 2018 Election Cycle,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000088.

[33] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, Inc. Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/NJ-AFL-CIO-Harwood-Grant-FY-17.pdf.

[34] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, Inc. Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/NJ-AFL-CIO-Harwood-Grant-FY-17.pdf.

[35] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for New Jersey State AFL-CIO, Community Services Agency, Inc. Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/NJ-AFL-CIO-Harwood-Grant-FY-17.pdf.

[36] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2016-2017 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY16-Philadelphia-PA-Joint-Board-12201700-yes_R.pdf.

[37] GuideStar, “Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United 2016 Form 990,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/230/971/2016-230971735-0eb2f33d-9O.pdf.

[38] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2016-2017 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY16-Philadelphia-PA-Joint-Board-12201700-yes_R.pdf.

[39] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2016-2017 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY16-Philadelphia-PA-Joint-Board-12201700-yes_R.pdf.

[40] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-Philadelphia-Joint-Board-App12470798_R.pdf.

[41] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-Philadelphia-Joint-Board-App12470798_R.pdf.

[42] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-Philadelphia-Joint-Board-App12470798_R.pdf.

[43] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-Philadelphia-Joint-Board-App12470798_R.pdf.

[44] Philadelphia Joint Board, Workers United, “2018 Election Endorsements,” accessed May 8, 2019, http://www.pjbworkersunited.org/2018-election.html.

[45] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for SEIU Education and Support Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/SEIU-FY-17.pdf.

[46] GuideStar, “SEIU Education and Support Fund 2016 Form 990,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/521/761/2016-521761037-0eab1243-9.pdf.

[47] GuideStar, “Service Employees International Union 2016 Form 990,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2016/360/852/2016-360852885-0ec457b8-9O.pdf.

[48] The Center for Responsive Politics, “Service Employees International Union, Summary, Profile for 2018 Election Cycle,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000077.

[49] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for SEIU Education and Support Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/SEIU-FY-17.pdf.

[50] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for SEIU Education and Support Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/SEIU-FY-17.pdf.

[51] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for SEIU Education and Support Fund Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/SEIU-FY-17.pdf.

[52] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2011-2012 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY11-SBCTCC-App10926981-R.pdf.

[53] GuideStar, “State Building & Construction Trades Council of California 2016 Form 990,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://pdf.guidestar.org/PDF_Images/2017/940/896/2017-940896460-0e9df568-9O.pdf.

[54] The Center for Responsive Politics, “AFL-CIO, Summary, Profile for 2018 Election Cycle,” accessed May 8, 2019, https://www.opensecrets.org/orgs/summary.php?id=D000000088.

[55] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2011-2012 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY11-SBCTCC-App10926981-R.pdf.

[56] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2012-2013 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY12-SBCTCC-App11171494-R.pdf.

[57] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2012-2013 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY12-SBCTCC-App11171494-R.pdf.

[58] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2013-2014 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY13-SBCTCC-App11447507-R.pdf.

[59] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2013-2014 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY13-SBCTCC-App11447507-R.pdf.

[60] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2014-2015 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY14-SBCTCC-App11700871-R.pdf.

[61] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2014-2015 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY14-SBCTCC-App11700871-R.pdf.

[62] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2016-2017 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY16-SBCTCC-App12194305-R.pdf.

[63] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2016-2017 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY16-SBCTCC-App12194305-R.pdf.

[64] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-SBCTC-App12462601-R.pdf.

[65] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-SBCTC-App12462601-R.pdf.

[66] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2017-2018 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY17-SBCTC-Mod-8-27-18-R.pdf.

[67] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2018-2019 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY18-SBCTCC-App12699367-R.pdf.

[68] OSHA, Response to FOIA Request for State Building & Construction Trades Council of California Grant for 2018-2019 Documents, accessed May 17, 2019, https://getliberty.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FY18-SBCTCC-App12699367-R.pdf.